What is Anonymous Grading? Brasil
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What is Anonymous Grading?

  • 3 min para ler

Read on to learn how anonymous grading enforces academic integrity by keeping instructors honest.

From K-12 to higher ed and even in corporate training, assessment is increasingly moving online. Whether it’s deterring cheating during student exams or eliminating implicit biases in grading, enforcing academic integrity online is becoming a vital priority for educators. This post, which lifts the veil on anonymous grading, is the third in a series on how technology is keeping learners honest online.

When it comes to assessments, enforcing academic integrity isn’t just about deterring student from cheating, it’s about keeping assessors honest too. Anonymous grading is an effective tool for keeping instructors on the straight and narrow.

Anonymous grading addresses the issue of assessors’ implicit biases. Conscious or unconscious, biases can change the way instructors grade assessments, be they small assignments or large exams, and that can have a significant impact on the learning experience and student success, even years later.

A study published in 2015 by the National Bureau of Economic Research, for example, revealed that elementary school teachers’ biases can discourage girls from pursuing math and science in school and beyond. Researchers studied three groups of students from sixth grade to the end of high school, giving them two versions of exams across different subjects – one graded by teachers who knew their names and another graded by teachers who didn’t. In math, the girls scored better in the exam that was graded anonymously, whereas the boys scored better in the exam that wasn’t.

The bias, however, wasn’t detected for tests in non-math and science subjects, such as English and Hebrew. Researchers found that teachers were underestimating the girls’ abilities in math and science while overestimating the boys’, and it affected how the students felt about the subjects going forward.

“The existence of implicit bias in grading is undeniable – that’s a robust result in the social psychology and educational literature,” says Dr. James Colliander, CEO and Founder of digital grading platform Crowdmark, a D2L partner. “Anonymizing grading eliminates the source of implicit bias and makes the process of evaluating learning outcomes fair to all students.”

How anonymous grading works

Typically, anonymous grading has involved physically taking apart paper-based exams and handing out individual pages, minus identity information, to a group of markers who, together in a room, each tackle a question before passing the assessment on. The exams are then reassembled, the scores collected, and the results tabulated. Not all institutions have the peoplepower and resources available to oversee an involved grading process like that.

Luckily, technology has made anonymous grading easier than ever. Digital grading platforms have streamlined the process, eliminating the logistics involved in dealing with mountains of paper while protecting student privacy.

How anonymous grading works in the digital age

Instructors login to an online grading platform that’s ideally integrated into a learning environment, and upload digital or paper-based assessments. Students can access and complete the assessment remotely, downloading, printing if necessary and completing them in class or at home.

Next, students scan and upload the completed assessment to the platform for grading. Their identity information, which is only written on the front page, is stored in a separate location from where grading takes place, and a unique tracking code, like a QR code, is applied to the rest of their assessment.

After being uploaded by students, the platform breaks the assessment down into its individual questions. Instructors can grade questions individually or in collaboration with other graders –as many as they like. They can all grade different questions simultaneously, wherever and whenever they like, without knowing the students’ identities. After grading is complete, the platform tabulates the final score.

Instructors can email or use the LMS to redistribute assessments with results to students, readily creating an almost instantaneous, fair feedback loop.

“That’s driving curriculum innovation,” says Colliander. “There’s absolutely an improvement to learning outcomes with enriched, improved feedback that comes back faster to students, as well as subsequent data analysis that allows for insights into the performance of grading teams.”

At the end of the day, anonymous grading is about leveling the playing field. By ensuring fairness, not only does it improve the learning experience for all students, but it also gives every student the opportunity to thrive.

It also allows institutions to demonstrate to students and stakeholders their commitment to a fair process through which assessments are delivered with the highest integrity.

Watch this video to see how anonymous grading works in D2L’s Brightspace.

 

Click here to learn about 6 benefits of online proctoring tools.

Click here to learn about the rise of biometrics in education.

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Fueling up:

Upskilling to grow careers

Name: Zaria
Age: 27

Policy prescriptions: Invest in a Learning-Integrated Life; Transform the learning of today with new partnerships; Accelerate the shift to skills-based learning and hiring

Zaria has five years of work experience and is ready to change jobs and enter a field that has high growth potential in her region. The national government has been investing in collecting better skills-based labour market information for years and has developed a public platform to offer individuals specialized tools to assess their skills against current market needs, and to locate employers that are currently hiring.

On the employer side, the human resources team is closely examining a recent internal skills audit done at their organization and determines that the organization needs additional digital marketing specialists. They initiate a search for individuals with the skills they will soon need and spot a strong candidate in Zaria who requires only light training on regulatory issues regarding the sale of electric vehicles, along with some formal skills development courses on social media marketing strategy. After a successful interview, Zaria is offered the job.

Upon joining, Zaria will receive an educational benefits stipend from the company, and access to a company-provided platform of curated programs for skills building from approved providers. Upon completion of a set of courses, Zaria will receive a credential from a company approved program verifying her technical knowledge and marking the end of her probationary period at the company. To ensure she continues to build her skills, she will move into a formal mentor program with one of her colleagues to receive continual peer-to-peer feedback on her demonstration of skills and knowledge. information

This affordable and accessible learning through employer-funded training has enabled Zaria to begin working while also upskilling to ensure her long-term success in the company and growing industry. The employer is investing in its employees, and company leaders are thinking further into the future about the skills the company needs, and the types of job candidates who will succeed. This match, based on skills potential, was made possible because of government investment in high-quality labour market information and a national platform that matches job candidates with career opportunities based on the candidates’ skills and the identified skill needs of a given job.

Taking the road less travelled:

A networked postsecondary education

Name: Sam
Age: 18

Policy prescriptions: Transform the learning of today with new partnerships

Sam is a prospective postsecondary student who has always been interested in pursuing a global and interdisciplinary education. Sam’s siblings have all instilled in her the importance of studying abroad, having spoken fondly of their academic exchange semesters, field research trips, and intensive language immersion programs. She is inspired, but unsure whether this pathway will be available if she chooses not to complete a four-year degree at one institution.

Sam is interested in understanding how emerging technologies can be used to modernize and improve government services—an area in need of talent not only in her home country of Canada but also abroad. She could take on a general political science, public administration, engineering, or computer science degree at the university close to her home, but none of those degrees feels like the right fit to build the skills she needs to pursue this career interest.

While researching options, Sam learns of a new degree completion pathway that allows students to take courses from a network of universities, colleges, and polytechnic institutions throughout Canada and stack them for skills-based  credentials that are recognized by major Canadian employers. A set of four of these credentials grants an individual a degree-equivalent endorsed by each institution. Sam identifies the skills and knowledge she wants to work towards and charts out four credential pathways:

  1. Service delivery design
  2. Change management
  3. Applications of emerging technologies (e.g., artificial intelligence)
  4. Machinery of government

With this customized learning pathway, Sam has full flexibility to decide how she wants to structure her courses, the institutions within the network she will study at, and the format and model of courses she prefers—whether live in-class instruction or online courses.

Cost flexibility is built in as well—students pay a standard fee based on the number of competencies they intend to learn rather than the normal standard of ‘credit hours’. The province in which Sam lives has endorsed this networked model of  postsecondary education and adjusted its financial assistance program to better support students. Grants and other non-repayable assistance take into consideration the number of courses the student is taking across all institutions when assessing financial need. Previously, Sam would have been required to be a full-time student at every institution to receive support.

Sam also has the option of starting with foundational courses or applying for Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition (PLAR) information so her existing knowledge and skills can be tested and she can move on to more advanced topics.

Sam completes her first three credentials in three years and uses her certifications to apply for a one-year work-integrated learning experience with the federal government in Germany where she can learn first-hand about the applications of artificial intelligence in government. When she returns home, she applies for PLAR to certify her learning on the machinery of government and is granted a degree acknowledging her four-part customized education.

The collaboration between universities, polytechnics, and colleges to create a networked approach to degree completion, and its endorsement by the provincial government, allowed Sam to graduate as an alumnus of multiple postsecondary education institutions. Her exposure to different thought spaces and networks was highly valuable for ensuring she was engaged throughout her education and set up for post-graduation success. In the rapidly evolving field she has chosen, she understands how important it is to continuously upskill, and is prepared to return to formal education for more stackable credentials as she continues throughout her career.

Route guidance:

Personalized professional development

Name: ZheYuan
Age: 33

Policy prescriptions: Prepare teachers for their own lifelong learning journeys; Accelerate the shift to skills-based learning and hiring

ZheYuan is about to join Marama’s school as a new secondary school teacher. He completed his professional teacher education a decade ago, and teaching looks a bit different today than it did when he was studying. With the incorporation of learning technologies in the classroom, and expectations of teachers delivering competency-based education information, he needs personalized professional development to feel comfortable and supported in this new opportunity.

The school district has been on its own learning journey since shifting to a competency-based education model, and has had some growing pains. Over time, the district has come to recognize that success depends on school administrators working closely with teachers to co-create systems of instruction, and pathways to professional development. The district has its own online learning management system (LMS) for teacher professional development, with a catalogue of content covering a range of subjects including:

  • Strategies for student-centred instruction
  • Design thinking—how to prototype and iterate on solutions to test new approaches
  • Online content—using learning management systems to advance competency-based education
  • Data analysis—interpreting student progress

ZheYuan is excited that he can take on professional learning to suit his needs on his own schedule. He recalls an earlier time when he had to spend nine hours a month in-person taking the same professional development courses as his peers who were teaching very different subjects and had varied skill levels and pedagogical needs than him, which was less than effective.

ZheYuan can also take advantage of his teacher community in the LMS, connecting both in asynchronous chats and in live discussions with other teachers and experts from across his region to ask questions and share his experiences. He sees some upcoming dialogues hosted by his school district to share learnings and signs up for those sessions, knowing he will get a valuable peer perspective from other teachers. ZheYuan is thankful that his school leaders recognize and value professional learning and provide the supports and the time needed for improvement.

D2L Whitepaper Contributors

Lead Authors:
Malika Asthana, Manager, Strategy and Public Affairs
Joe Pickerill, Senior Director, Strategy and Public Affairs, International

Contributors:
Jeremy Auger, Chief Strategy Officer
Mark Schneiderman, Senior Director, Future of Teaching and Learning
Brendan Desetti, Senior Director, Strategy and Public Affairs, United States
Mike Semansky, Senior Director, Strategy and Public Affairs, Canada
Nia Brown, Senior Manager, Strategy and Public Affairs

In the driver’s seat:

Owning the personalized learning journey

Name: Marama
Age: 14

Policy prescriptions: Prepare teachers for their own lifelong learning journeys; Accelerate the shift to skills-based learning and hiring

Marama is enrolled in a school with a competency-based education model information. Students are responsible for owning the personalization of their learning pathways, making choices alongside their teachers in how and when they learn.iii Teachers play a central role in guiding and validating all learning, regardless of where it takes place—offering formative assessments to evaluate a student’s mastery of skills and knowledge. Teachers use data from these assessments, gathered through an online learning management system (LMS), to differentiate instruction and provide targeted supports so that all students progress toward graduation. As a student diagnosed with a learning disability, Marama is supported in her education by this personalized learning pathway.

All students complete an assessment in ninth grade to identify their natural strengths as a learner. Their teachers use the results as inputs to design tailormade educational pathways with learning materials and activities that suit the individual students’ learning needs. In Marama’s case, this includes:

  1. Supplementing lecture-based teaching with structured but independent reading
  2. Shadowing professionals who work on the concepts she is learning about
  3. Taking the stories and lessons she’s learned and sharing it back with classmates by designing a creative and interactive presentation

Over the course of the school year, Marama spends a third of her time in live lectures (sometimes online) with her teacher alongside other classmates—but the rest of her time is spent learning in the ways that suit her best. She can log into her online LMS from her mobile device to access her school resources and complete on her own schedule before the assigned deadline. When Marama finds a concept that interests her, she can ask her teachers and counsellor for support in finding a working professional to speak to, or work alongside for a couple weeks, from the network her school has curated over time. And when she has learned something, she is encouraged to reinforce her learning by applying her skills and developing content to share back with her classmates.

Marama’s personalized learning journey empowers her to own her education by learning in ways that are effective for her, with the support that allows her to be successful. Her teachers have high-quality data about student strengths and performance they can share with her parents to show them how she is mastering specific skills, and where she may need extra support. Her school experience empowers her to embrace her subject interests very early on, and she advances to deeper topics quickly as she submits evidence of learning that demonstrates her proficiency. She graduates having cultivated a mindset for self-directed learning early in her education.