El nuevo modelo híbrido en la educación | D2L
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El nuevo modelo híbrido en la educación

  • 4 Min para leer

Tras la vuelta al cole y un septiembre atípico como pocos, poco a poco las familias intentan informarse y coger nuevo rumbo en un año escolar que será muy distinto a los anteriores. La Covid-19 no ha creado el modelo híbrido de educación, pero es evidente que sí lo ha traído hasta la actualidad y, además, lo ha hecho a toda velocidad.

El modelo educativo híbrido se configura como una alternativa a los típicos métodos de enseñanza, mediante un sistema a medio camino entre la clase tradicional y la educación on-line. Así, el modelo híbrido desplaza en buena parte al estudio y el aprendizaje fuera de las aulas como lo teníamos entendido hasta la fecha. En estos últimos meses del año, ya podemos afirmar que la educación presencial no ha desaparecido, pero sí que ha cambiado su ritmo, a la par que la educación a distancia toma un nuevo impulso en 2020.

Cómo ha afectado el coronavirus a los modelos educativos híbridos

En España, a lo largo de los meses de mayor impacto del coronavirus la enseñanza en las aulas ha mutado, progresivamente, en una educación no presencial de emergencia. Se ha comprobado que, gran parte del sector educativo no estaba, pues, preparado para acoger la enseñanza en línea, tanto por la falta de competencia digital de muchos docentes como por el cambio abrupto que ha supuesto la pandemia.

Pero ¿existe un único modelo educativo híbrido?, ¿se han planteado distintas formas de este nuevo tipo de enseñanza? A continuación, vamos a analizar en detalle los modelos híbridos y los procesos que se están instaurando frente a posibles nuevos brotes.

Modelos híbridos semipresenciales de educación

Los modelos híbridos de educación permitían realizar actividades on-line dentro y fuera de las clases. Paulatinamente, las nuevas competencias on-line y la integración de alumnos nativos digitales ha permitido desplazar muchas de las actividades fuera de los centros educativos. De este modo, se configuran cuatro grandes bloques de educación semipresencial:

#1 Modelo híbrido semipresencial en clase invertida

La clase invertida es, cada vez, más habitual en universidades y centros de educación superior y complementaria. Se basa en que el alumno estudie, previamente, los temas que se tratarán en la clase presencial. De este modo, se aprovecha el ámbito digital para la obtención de conocimientos y, en las clases presenciales, el profesor valora el seguimiento y plantea sesiones más participativas, mejorando la autonomía y la flexibilidad del alumno.

Como principal contrapartida, este modelo educativo resulta muy complicado de trasladar a la educación primaria o secundaria, puesto que requiere de habilidades lectivas concretas (por ejemplo, capacidad de análisis o estudio por cuenta propia) que los estudiantes deberán ir asumiendo a lo largo de sus años.

#2 Modelo de rotación por estaciones

En este modelo, las clases se dividen en varios grupos, que suelen conocerse como estaciones de trabajo. En su versión más simple adaptada al periodo actual, podríamos entender dos estaciones: alumnos que asisten a clase de forma presencial y alumnos que asisten a clase en formato on-line. De este modo, el aforo en las aulas podría mantenerse al 50 % siempre que resultase necesario.

#3 Modelo del laboratorio de rotación

En los modelos de laboratorio de rotación, los grupos de alumnos se dividen en aquellos que realizan primero la parte teórica y aquellos que acogen la parte práctica. Para comprender mejor este modelo híbrido de educación, podemos imaginarnos una clase de química o de educación física. En esta clase, es tan importante conocer la teoría como llevar a cabo el experimento o la práctica del ejercicio., ¿no te parece? Además, progresivamente, el grupo que empieza por la parte teórica puede empezar por la práctica y viceversa, mejorando también sus competencias frente a distintos tipos de aprendizaje.

#4 Modelo híbrido educativo de rotación individual

Por último, contamos con un modelo educativo individual en el que el alumno no tiene la necesidad de pasar por el centro de estudios o solo debe hacerlo para algunas áreas concretas, pudiendo personalizar sus horarios y su asistencia dentro del grupo. De nuevo, esta opción es fantástica en estudios superiores, pero puede resultar difícil en estudios primarios o secundarios, que encajan mejor con los modelos de rotación grupal.  

Ventajas del modelo híbrido de educación

Podemos dividir las ventajas del modelo según las principales fortalezas para alumnos/as y educadores/as.

En el caso de los estudiantes:

  • Los alumnos no se limitan a presenciar la exposición de conceptos, sino que, gracias a la educación híbrida, acogen un rol más activo, con contenidos sugeridos por el profesor y exposiciones donde enfrentar y afrontar los temarios
  • Potencia las capacidades autónomas del estudiante: estudiar por sí mismo, analizar conceptos, buscar fuentes relacionadas…
  • Se rompen las barreras de espacio y tiempo, lo que hace más accesible la educación para millones de personas en el mundo

Por su parte, el profesorado y el centro de estudios:

  • Pueden reducir costes asociados a las clases, tanto de infraestructura como para el alumno, pudiendo limitar la necesidad de espacios físicos, limpieza, mantenimiento y un largo etcétera; en épocas como la etapa post-covid que estamos viviendo se cuenta, además, con un extra en seguridad sanitaria
  • Los educadores ganan tiempo y pueden aprovecharlo mejor para la preparación de las clases, puesto que se reducen los tiempos de transporte, el número de clases o se elimina, parcialmente, la dependencia de un espacio físico

La educación híbrida es una gran opción en el momento actual, así como una respuesta necesaria ante un grave problema social y sanitario; sin embargo, eso no hace que no resulte una alternativa cada vez más atractiva como sustituto o complemento de los modelos tradicionales de educación, en especial, a partir de la situación de la Covid-19 y los cambios que se están generando en la educación superior. 

 

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Fueling up:

Upskilling to grow careers

Name: Zaria
Age: 27

Policy prescriptions: Invest in a Learning-Integrated Life; Transform the learning of today with new partnerships; Accelerate the shift to skills-based learning and hiring

Zaria has five years of work experience and is ready to change jobs and enter a field that has high growth potential in her region. The national government has been investing in collecting better skills-based labour market information for years and has developed a public platform to offer individuals specialized tools to assess their skills against current market needs, and to locate employers that are currently hiring.

On the employer side, the human resources team is closely examining a recent internal skills audit done at their organization and determines that the organization needs additional digital marketing specialists. They initiate a search for individuals with the skills they will soon need and spot a strong candidate in Zaria who requires only light training on regulatory issues regarding the sale of electric vehicles, along with some formal skills development courses on social media marketing strategy. After a successful interview, Zaria is offered the job.

Upon joining, Zaria will receive an educational benefits stipend from the company, and access to a company-provided platform of curated programs for skills building from approved providers. Upon completion of a set of courses, Zaria will receive a credential from a company approved program verifying her technical knowledge and marking the end of her probationary period at the company. To ensure she continues to build her skills, she will move into a formal mentor program with one of her colleagues to receive continual peer-to-peer feedback on her demonstration of skills and knowledge. information

This affordable and accessible learning through employer-funded training has enabled Zaria to begin working while also upskilling to ensure her long-term success in the company and growing industry. The employer is investing in its employees, and company leaders are thinking further into the future about the skills the company needs, and the types of job candidates who will succeed. This match, based on skills potential, was made possible because of government investment in high-quality labour market information and a national platform that matches job candidates with career opportunities based on the candidates’ skills and the identified skill needs of a given job.

Taking the road less travelled:

A networked postsecondary education

Name: Sam
Age: 18

Policy prescriptions: Transform the learning of today with new partnerships

Sam is a prospective postsecondary student who has always been interested in pursuing a global and interdisciplinary education. Sam’s siblings have all instilled in her the importance of studying abroad, having spoken fondly of their academic exchange semesters, field research trips, and intensive language immersion programs. She is inspired, but unsure whether this pathway will be available if she chooses not to complete a four-year degree at one institution.

Sam is interested in understanding how emerging technologies can be used to modernize and improve government services—an area in need of talent not only in her home country of Canada but also abroad. She could take on a general political science, public administration, engineering, or computer science degree at the university close to her home, but none of those degrees feels like the right fit to build the skills she needs to pursue this career interest.

While researching options, Sam learns of a new degree completion pathway that allows students to take courses from a network of universities, colleges, and polytechnic institutions throughout Canada and stack them for skills-based  credentials that are recognized by major Canadian employers. A set of four of these credentials grants an individual a degree-equivalent endorsed by each institution. Sam identifies the skills and knowledge she wants to work towards and charts out four credential pathways:

  1. Service delivery design
  2. Change management
  3. Applications of emerging technologies (e.g., artificial intelligence)
  4. Machinery of government

With this customized learning pathway, Sam has full flexibility to decide how she wants to structure her courses, the institutions within the network she will study at, and the format and model of courses she prefers—whether live in-class instruction or online courses.

Cost flexibility is built in as well—students pay a standard fee based on the number of competencies they intend to learn rather than the normal standard of ‘credit hours’. The province in which Sam lives has endorsed this networked model of  postsecondary education and adjusted its financial assistance program to better support students. Grants and other non-repayable assistance take into consideration the number of courses the student is taking across all institutions when assessing financial need. Previously, Sam would have been required to be a full-time student at every institution to receive support.

Sam also has the option of starting with foundational courses or applying for Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition (PLAR) information so her existing knowledge and skills can be tested and she can move on to more advanced topics.

Sam completes her first three credentials in three years and uses her certifications to apply for a one-year work-integrated learning experience with the federal government in Germany where she can learn first-hand about the applications of artificial intelligence in government. When she returns home, she applies for PLAR to certify her learning on the machinery of government and is granted a degree acknowledging her four-part customized education.

The collaboration between universities, polytechnics, and colleges to create a networked approach to degree completion, and its endorsement by the provincial government, allowed Sam to graduate as an alumnus of multiple postsecondary education institutions. Her exposure to different thought spaces and networks was highly valuable for ensuring she was engaged throughout her education and set up for post-graduation success. In the rapidly evolving field she has chosen, she understands how important it is to continuously upskill, and is prepared to return to formal education for more stackable credentials as she continues throughout her career.

Route guidance:

Personalized professional development

Name: ZheYuan
Age: 33

Policy prescriptions: Prepare teachers for their own lifelong learning journeys; Accelerate the shift to skills-based learning and hiring

ZheYuan is about to join Marama’s school as a new secondary school teacher. He completed his professional teacher education a decade ago, and teaching looks a bit different today than it did when he was studying. With the incorporation of learning technologies in the classroom, and expectations of teachers delivering competency-based education information, he needs personalized professional development to feel comfortable and supported in this new opportunity.

The school district has been on its own learning journey since shifting to a competency-based education model, and has had some growing pains. Over time, the district has come to recognize that success depends on school administrators working closely with teachers to co-create systems of instruction, and pathways to professional development. The district has its own online learning management system (LMS) for teacher professional development, with a catalogue of content covering a range of subjects including:

  • Strategies for student-centred instruction
  • Design thinking—how to prototype and iterate on solutions to test new approaches
  • Online content—using learning management systems to advance competency-based education
  • Data analysis—interpreting student progress

ZheYuan is excited that he can take on professional learning to suit his needs on his own schedule. He recalls an earlier time when he had to spend nine hours a month in-person taking the same professional development courses as his peers who were teaching very different subjects and had varied skill levels and pedagogical needs than him, which was less than effective.

ZheYuan can also take advantage of his teacher community in the LMS, connecting both in asynchronous chats and in live discussions with other teachers and experts from across his region to ask questions and share his experiences. He sees some upcoming dialogues hosted by his school district to share learnings and signs up for those sessions, knowing he will get a valuable peer perspective from other teachers. ZheYuan is thankful that his school leaders recognize and value professional learning and provide the supports and the time needed for improvement.

D2L Whitepaper Contributors

Lead Authors:
Malika Asthana, Manager, Strategy and Public Affairs
Joe Pickerill, Senior Director, Strategy and Public Affairs, International

Contributors:
Jeremy Auger, Chief Strategy Officer
Mark Schneiderman, Senior Director, Future of Teaching and Learning
Brendan Desetti, Senior Director, Strategy and Public Affairs, United States
Mike Semansky, Senior Director, Strategy and Public Affairs, Canada
Nia Brown, Senior Manager, Strategy and Public Affairs

In the driver’s seat:

Owning the personalized learning journey

Name: Marama
Age: 14

Policy prescriptions: Prepare teachers for their own lifelong learning journeys; Accelerate the shift to skills-based learning and hiring

Marama is enrolled in a school with a competency-based education model information. Students are responsible for owning the personalization of their learning pathways, making choices alongside their teachers in how and when they learn.iii Teachers play a central role in guiding and validating all learning, regardless of where it takes place—offering formative assessments to evaluate a student’s mastery of skills and knowledge. Teachers use data from these assessments, gathered through an online learning management system (LMS), to differentiate instruction and provide targeted supports so that all students progress toward graduation. As a student diagnosed with a learning disability, Marama is supported in her education by this personalized learning pathway.

All students complete an assessment in ninth grade to identify their natural strengths as a learner. Their teachers use the results as inputs to design tailormade educational pathways with learning materials and activities that suit the individual students’ learning needs. In Marama’s case, this includes:

  1. Supplementing lecture-based teaching with structured but independent reading
  2. Shadowing professionals who work on the concepts she is learning about
  3. Taking the stories and lessons she’s learned and sharing it back with classmates by designing a creative and interactive presentation

Over the course of the school year, Marama spends a third of her time in live lectures (sometimes online) with her teacher alongside other classmates—but the rest of her time is spent learning in the ways that suit her best. She can log into her online LMS from her mobile device to access her school resources and complete on her own schedule before the assigned deadline. When Marama finds a concept that interests her, she can ask her teachers and counsellor for support in finding a working professional to speak to, or work alongside for a couple weeks, from the network her school has curated over time. And when she has learned something, she is encouraged to reinforce her learning by applying her skills and developing content to share back with her classmates.

Marama’s personalized learning journey empowers her to own her education by learning in ways that are effective for her, with the support that allows her to be successful. Her teachers have high-quality data about student strengths and performance they can share with her parents to show them how she is mastering specific skills, and where she may need extra support. Her school experience empowers her to embrace her subject interests very early on, and she advances to deeper topics quickly as she submits evidence of learning that demonstrates her proficiency. She graduates having cultivated a mindset for self-directed learning early in her education.